The first generation of rap (1989-2001) was more interested in talking about issues of urban poverty and racism.
Is there a specific moment when the mainstream hip hop community was first truly inclusive?
The rap music culture that was created was inclusive because it was made by people who looked like themselves. And the idea that this would make it more culturally specific just didn’t make sense.
I think in the 1990s, I think it was actually the mainstreaming of the rap that made it so much more inclusive.
If it’s the mainstreamening of the rap music, why has that not spread? What happened after the hip hop became mainstream and how are we doing the same thing?
For the same reason there is no such thing as the first black civil rights movement. The most we can say is ‘the first black civil rights movement was around 1920 and, yes, we went to Washington and made ourselves heard.’ The civil rights movement was really the first time that black people started getting together and coming together to make an agreement. And we didn’t just do that on a talk show. We did it in our communities. And while we may not have made all of the decisions that are necessary to make it into a formal government, we certainly made a lot of our own and were able to do it in such an informal way without a formal government that allowed us to do it.
The black nationalist movement that came to power in the US in the 1930s had made a lot of the choices for black people that were required to create the modern civil rights movement. But for the first time white people were involved in the making of that kind of culture, and so at this time blacks and Latinos were able to create black culture for themselves.
So how did black people in America go from being oppressed by white people to making culture?
They started making it themselves and they started creating their own music without white people.
So if you’re talking about the African-American struggle to create their own music and black culture on their own terms rather than what white people were doing, what is black consciousness?
The idea behind the Afrikaner liberation movement is that we needed, like, to be liberated from white colonialism, and that black people were the true patriots and we needed to stop our enslavement because they were using us to make white people a better society. And the idea was that because black people are more willing to be creative, they’re more able
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